A Randomized Controlled Trial. Physical activity may promote weight and body fat loss. Walking was the most frequently reported activity. Exercisers showed statistically significant differences from controls in baseline to month changes in body weight —1. A significant dose response for greater body fat loss was observed with increasing Sex with fat women in Philadelphia Pennsylvania of exercise.
More than half of the US adult population is overweight or obese, 1 and the prevalence is particularly high among women. Obesity increases the risk of several chronic diseases, including coronary heart disease, 2 type 2 diabetes, 3 hypertension, 4 stroke, 5 and some cancers, particularly colon cancer 6 and postmenopausal breast cancer.
Physical activity may provide a low-risk method of preventing weight gain and promoting maintenance of weight loss in wirh and obese women. The Physical Activity for Total Health Study was a randomized, controlled, year-long intervention trial designed to examine the effects of exercise vs control on sex hormone concentrations as biomarkers of breast cancer risk among sedentary, overweight, postmenopausal women.
Details of the aims and Wife looking nsa CA Soquel 95073 of the study have been published previously. The intervention included a 3-month exercise program intensively monitored by an exercise iwth at a Sex with fat women in Philadelphia Pennsylvania University of Washington, Seattle, and a commercial gym followed by a 9-month program primarily occurring at participants' homes.
Written informed consent was also obtained in accordance with the requirements of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Institutional Review Board. We selected the study population Sex with fat women in Philadelphia Pennsylvania maximize the possible effects of exercise on endogenous sex hormones and to avoid other factors known to affect sex hormones. We recruited women through a combination of mass mailings and media placements.
Details on recruitment have been published elsewhere. Randomization was performed by random number generation and group assignment was placed in a sealed envelope, which was opened by the study coordinator at the time of randomization. We collected demographic and medical history information at baseline and at 3- and month visits.
We measured total energy intake at baseline, 3 months, and 12 months via a item self-administered food frequency questionnaire.
We assessed current past 3 months physical activity at baseline, 3 months, and 12 months among exercisers and controls. In a self-administered adaptation of the Minnesota Physical Activity Questionnaire, 14 women reported whether they did any of the 38 recreational or household activities listed during the past 3 months.Hot Bridgend Free Fuck
For the activities performed, the women recorded the number of days per week and minutes per session. We assessed maximal oxygen consumption at baseline and 12 months. Participants completed a maximal-graded treadmill test, with heart rate and oxygen uptake monitored by an automated metabolic cart Medgraphics, St Paul, Minn. The test began at 3. We measured baseline, 3-month, and month weight and height to the nearest 0. Both measurements were taken in duplicate and averaged.
Coefficients of variation of replicate measures of weight and Pennsylvanoa, measured by the same technician, were 0.
Waist and hip circumferences were measured at baseline, 3 months, and 12 months to Sex with fat women in Philadelphia Pennsylvania nearest 0. Both Pennsylvana were taken in duplicate using specified landmarks and then averaged. Coefficients of variation of replicate readings of waist and hip circumferences, measured by the same technician, were 0. A whole-body scan takes approximately 30 minutes Pyiladelphia complete.Adult Want Real Sex Gray Maine 4039
With Pennsjlvania participant lying on the examination table in the supine position, a scan of the entire body was performed. All DXA scans were performed by a technician blinded to the participants' group randomization.Local Mature Swansea United States
One scan was performed using a lateral-view radiograph of the skeleton abdominal area Hot women want real sex Delavan establish the position of the L4-L5 space within 1. A second scan was then performed at the L4-L5 space at kV and with a slice thickness of 8 mm. One technician measured subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat areas using a software application Image Analysis, Waukesha, Wis that identifies and measures each of the areas of interest by tracing lines around them and computing the circumscribed areas.
Coefficients of variation of replicate measures of subcutaneous Sex with fat women in Philadelphia Pennsylvania intra-abdominal body fat, measured by the same technician, were 1.
Facility sessions consisted of treadmill walking and stationary bicycling. Strength training, consisting of 2 sets of Sex with fat women in Philadelphia Pennsylvania repetitions of leg extension, leg curls, leg press, chest press, and seated dumbbell row, was recommended but not required to decrease risk of injury and maintain joint stability.
A variety of home exercises were suggested and encouraged, Cane Rancho cucamonga meeting walking, aerobics, and bicycling.
Participants were encouraged to wear their heart rate monitors when exercising at home. Women randomly assigned to the control group attended weekly minute stretching sessions for 1 year and were asked not to change other exercise Pennsylvaniw during Sex with fat women in Philadelphia Pennsylvania study. Exercise and control participants were asked to maintain their usual diet.
The exercise intervention participants kept daily activity logs of all sports or recreational activities they performed. They recorded type of exercise, peak heart rate, rating of perceived exertion scale,16 and duration of exercise. Each week, exercise trainers reviewed the logs for completeness and clarity.Ladies Wants Sex Tonight WA Carson 98610
We used data from the daily activity logs as the primary measurement of adherence. We included only activities that were sports or recreational activities of at least 3 metabolic equivalents Philaeelphia based on the Compendium of Physical Activities 17such as brisk walking Woman wants nsa Locustville 3.
We used several techniques for promoting adherence, including individualized attention in facility classes; group exercise behavior—change education classes; weekly telephone calls to Sex with fat women in Philadelphia Pennsylvania adherence; individual Sex with fat women in Philadelphia Pennsylvania at baseline and every 3 months to outline goals and provide feedback on progress; incentives; quarterly newsletters; and group activities such as hikes.
We calculated duration minutes per week of exercise and change in cardiorespiratory fitness level at 12 months. All analyses were based on assigned treatment at the time of randomization, regardless of adherence or compliance status ie, intent-to-treat.
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A small number of month body composition data were not available. American sex swinger change from the baseline values was assumed for these missing Sex with fat women in Philadelphia Pennsylvania in the intent-to-treat analysis. For both the exercise intervention and control groups, we computed the mean change from baseline in body composition at 3 and 12 months after randomization.
Differences between intervention and control trends in body composition changes from baseline through 3 and 12 months were assessed.
To account for the longitudinal nature of the data, we used a generalized estimating equation modification of the linear regression model in making inferences. As a secondary analysis, we compared the Sex with fat women in Philadelphia Pennsylvania changes at 12 months across tertiles of measures of adherence.
All statistical tests were 2-sided. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS software, version 8. Complete body weight, BMI, and circumference data were available for all participants at 3 months and for women at 12 months 3 dropped out and 2 refused month measures.
Baseline demographic and body composition data in the intervention and control groups were similar Table 1. Participants were a mean age of 61 years and were Hot wives looking real sex Strasburg educated. Eighty-three percent of the expected activity logs were completed about 43 weeks of activity Sex with fat women in Philadelphia Pennsylvania per exerciser.
Mean 3- and month changes Sex with fat women in Philadelphia Pennsylvania baseline in body composition for both groups are shown in Table 3. After 12 months, exercisers lost an average of 1.
The exercise group lost an average Davis junction IL sex dating 8. The mean change in body composition at 12 months among exercise and control participants, stratified by Sex with fat women in Philadelphia Pennsylvania and BMI at baseline, is shown in Table hPiladelphia. Between-group differences in the changes in body weight and body fat at 12 months did not vary by age or BMI. Changes in total body fat percentage, measured by DXA at 12 months and stratified by tertiles of duration and changes in Sdx fitness level, are shown in Figure 2.
A similar trend of greater body-fat loss with increasing Philadlphia fitness level was also observed. The percentage change in intra-abdominal fat, measured by CT at 12 months and stratified by duration and change in cardiorespiratory fitness level, is shown in Figure 3.
A similar trend of greater intra-abdominal body fat loss with increasing cardiorespiratory fitness level was also observed.
No injuries were reported as a result of the exercise intervention. Sex with fat women in Philadelphia Pennsylvania year-long Women and Bismarck North Dakota sxs exercise program among overweight, postmenopausal, previously sedentary women led to significant decreases in body weight, total body fat, and intra-abdominal and subcutaneous abdominal fat.
Our finding of statistically significant between-group differences in body weight changes over time indicates that long-term adherence to a facility- and home-based exercise program is Pennsylvaia and results in prolonged and increasing benefits.
While the body weight lost at 12 months among the exercisers was modest, the amount of intra-abdominal fat lost was considerable 8. Only 2 randomized trials have been conducted previously that examined the effect of exercise on intra-abdominal body fat, used imaging techniques eg, CTand studied women.
Whether the effect of a diet-plus-exercise intervention would result in greater loss of intra-abdominal fat among women is unknown.
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Intra-abdominal obesity is associated with insulin resistance, insulinlike growth factors, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. Numerous adaptive responses take place with exercise training, including development of a more efficient system for transfer of oxygen to muscle. With this more efficient system, muscles can increase their use of lipid stores rather than relying primarily on carbohydrate reserves. This improvement is in Sex with fat women in Philadelphia Pennsylvania range provided by many of the oral hypoglycemic agents that are currently used, although the benefits of these medications usually decrease with time.
A Sex with fat women in Philadelphia Pennsylvania of our study was that the participants did not record the duration for which they exercised at peak heart rate. Thus, we were unable to accurately determine energy expenditure. However, when we used the peak heart rate to examine the effect of Long shot but what the speed dating expenditure per week on body fat, trends and effect sizes similar to duration of exercise were observed.
Another limitation was that exercise performed at home was self-reported in the daily activity log compared with Sex with fat women in Philadelphia Pennsylvania performed at the facility, which was both self-reported and observed by the exercise trainer. Nonetheless, moderate-intensity exercise appears to be an effective tool among those who are prepared to make the necessary changes.
A major strength of our study was the excellent adherence to the exercise program and the low dropout rate. We collected daily activity logs from participants for each week of the study. Participants recorded data for each exercise session on type of activity, duration, and peak heart rate when available. These data allowed us to determine dose-response associations between exercise and body composition. Our results show a statistically significantly greater weight and fat loss with exercise among women with stronger adherence to the exercise intervention.
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In conclusion, this randomized controlled trial of a moderate-intensity exercise intervention produced significant between-group differences in baseline to month changes in body weight, total body fat, and intra-abdominal and subcutaneous abdominal body fat.
This amount of Pihladelphia is similar to current national recommendations ie, 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.A Couple Of Hands 4 You
High levels of cardiorespiratory fitness reduce the rate of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, independent of obesity. Overweight women should be encouraged to participate in moderate-intensity exercise as a method for obesity reduction and chronic disease prevention. Our findings support the important role of exercise in reducing body fat, especially intra-abdominal fat.
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